In recent decades, he says, everyday technologies have forced us into a discombobulated state of constant alert. Our phones beep around the clock with news of emails, tweets and text messages. And entertainment networks have largely abandoned long-form narratives in favour of the strobe-like intensity of reality television. Changes like these, thinks Rushkoff, have robbed us of the ability to pause and to put events into context. We are afflicted with “present shock”. Among other things, it causes some of us … to see connections where there are none.